Does Nitrofurantoin Affect Birth Control?

Does Nitrofurantoin Affect Birth Control

Nitrofurantoin, commonly sold under the brand name Macrobid, is an antibiotic frequently prescribed for urinary tract infections (UTIs). It’s really effective at killing the bacteria that cause these infections.

However, patients, especially those of reproductive age, frequently express concern about its potential interactions with hormonal birth control methods, like the pill, patch, or rings.

In today’s article, we aim to demystify the effects of nitrofurantoin on birth control efficacy. We’ll provide clear, evidence-based information to help you make informed healthcare decisions while managing UTIs.

What is Nitrofurantoin?

Nitrofurantoin is an antibiotic that’s been in use since the 1950s. It is specifically designed to target and eliminate bacteria-causing urinary tract infections (UTIs).

Its mode of operation lies in its ability to interfere with the bacterial processes responsible for cell wall production and metabolism, thus stopping their growth and spread.

What is it used for?

Nitrofurantoin is mainly used to treat urinary tract infections (UTIs), which are infections that affect parts of the urinary system, including the bladder (cystitis), urethra (urethritis), or kidneys (pyelonephritis).

It is particularly effective against a range of bacteria that commonly cause these types of infections, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and several species of Klebsiella and Enterobacter.

Nitrofurantoin is often prescribed for the treatment and prevention of recurrent UTIs which makes it an invaluable tool in both acute and prophylactic care.

Birth Control Methods

Hormonal Birth Control

Hormonal birth control is one of the most popular and effective methods used worldwide. It works mainly by changing the hormone levels in the body to prevent ovulation, the process in which an egg is released from the ovaries.

  • The Pill: An oral contraceptive taken daily, containing estrogen and progestin, or progestin only.
  • The Patch: A small patch you wear on your skin that puts hormones into your blood.
  • The Vaginal Ring: A flexible ring inserted into the vagina monthly, releasing hormones.

Non-Hormonal Birth Control

In contrast, non-hormonal birth control methods do not influence hormone levels in the body. Instead, they work by creating physical or chemical barriers to prevent sperm from reaching an egg. Examples include:

  • Condoms: Latex or polyurethane sheaths worn on the penis or inside the vagina during intercourse.
  • Diaphragms and Cervical Caps: Silicone cups inserted into the vagina before intercourse to cover the cervix and block sperm.
  • Copper IUDs: A copper device inserted into the uterus, which acts as a spermicide and prevents sperm from fertilizing an egg.

The Interaction Between Nitrofurantoin and Birth Control

Does Nitrofurantoin Affect the Efficacy of Birth Control?

The short answer is No.

Current research and clinical guidelines show that Nitrofurantoin does not negatively affect the efficacy of hormonal birth control methods, including the pill, patch, and vaginal ring.

This is because Nitrofurantoin works in a different way from some antibiotics that can interfere with how the body uses birth control hormones.

This conclusion is supported by various studies and health organizations, including the National Health Service (NHS).  They say Nitrofurantoin doesn’t affect contraception at all, including the regular pill and emergency birth control.

However, it’s always important for patients to consult with their healthcare providers regarding their specific circumstances and medication interactions.

How Nitrofurantoin May Impact Hormonal Birth Control

Although research shows that Nitrofurantoin doesn’t weaken the power of hormonal birth control, it’s always smart to talk to your doctor or a nurse about your own health and any medicines you’re taking.

In simple terms, taking Nitrofurantoin for a UTI while using birth control like the pill, patch, or ring should keep you protected from pregnancy. But if you’re ever unsure or have more questions, your provider is the best person to help you out.

Read also: Can I Use Nitrofurantoin for Tooth Infection?

Recommendations for Women taking Nitrofurantoin

When women are prescribed Nitrofurantoin, particularly those using hormonal birth control methods, the following recommendations ensure sustained contraceptive effectiveness and overall health:

  1. Stay Informed: Always read the medication guide provided with your prescription of Nitrofurantoin to understand potential side effects and interactions.
  2. Report Side Effects: If you experience any unusual side effects while taking Nitrofurantoin, such as severe diarrhea, which might impact the absorption of your birth control, contact your professional immediately.
  3. Use Backup Contraception: Although it’s not specifically required when taking Nitrofurantoin, using a barrier method like condoms during the course of the antibiotic treatment adds an extra layer of pregnancy prevention and protects against sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
  4. Regular Check-Ups: Schedule follow-up appointments to monitor the effectiveness of the treatment for UTI and to reassess birth control needs and preferences regularly.
  5. Education on Symptoms: Be aware of the symptoms of UTIs and the importance of early treatment. UTIs, if left untreated, can have serious implications, including on reproductive health.

Related: Can I Use Nitrofurantoin for Tooth Infection?

Alternative Precautions and Measures

While Nitrofurantoin and birth control pills usually don’t mess with each other, it’s important for people to look out for their health. Here are some extra safety tips to think about:

  • Stay Hydrated: Drinking lots of water helps clean out bacteria from your urinary tract, which can stop infections or help cure them.
  • Healthy Diet: Maintain a balanced diet rich in vitamins and minerals, which can support the immune system in fighting infections.
  • Personal Hygiene: Practicing good personal hygiene, especially after sexual intercourse, can decrease the risk of UTIs by reducing the chance of bacteria entering the urinary tract.
  • Avoid Irritants: Limit exposure to potential chemical irritants found in some soaps, vaginal sprays, and douches that can upset the natural flora of the genital area, increasing the risk of UTIs.
  • Clothing Choices: Wear loose-fitting, cotton underwear and avoid tight clothing to help keep the area around the urethra dry, reducing the conditions bacteria need to grow.
  • Prompt Treatment of Symptoms: Recognizing and seeking treatment for UTI symptoms early can prevent complications, including those that might affect hormonal birth control’s effectiveness.


In conclusion, the interaction of Nitrofurantoin with hormonal birth control methods, such as the pill, patch, and ring, is proven to be non-detrimental to their efficacy. Taking care of your health, like drinking lots of water and keeping clean, is very important to stay healthy and avoid UTIs.

It’s really important to talk to doctors to get advice that’s right for you. Working together with your doctor is key to making sure birth control works well and using medicines like Nitrofurantoin to treat UTIs safely, keeping you healthy overall.


Should I stop taking my birth control if prescribed nitrofurantoin?

No, you should not stop taking your birth control when prescribed Nitrofurantoin. Research and clinical guidelines confirm that Nitrofurantoin does not decrease the effectiveness of hormonal contraception.

How long after taking nitrofurantoin should I use backup contraception?

Based on current clinical guidelines and research, it is not necessary to use backup contraception after taking Nitrofurantoin, as it does not compromise the effectiveness of hormonal birth control methods. However, consulting with a doctor for personalized advice is always recommended.

Can nitrofurantoin affect the menstrual cycle?

While Nitrofurantoin might not directly affect hormonal birth control, its interaction with the menstrual cycle hasn’t been conclusively proven to cause significant changes. Some people might notice slight alterations in their cycle when taking antibiotics, including Nitrofurantoin, due to the body’s response to infection and medication. However, these changes are usually temporary.



The information provided in this article is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Don’t ignore professional medical advice or put off seeking it just because of something you read here. Although we aim to offer precise and current information, we do not guarantee its completeness, accuracy, reliability, suitability, or availability for any purpose. Using the information in this document is at your own risk. We are not responsible for any losses or damages caused by our content.

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